What is Android? Introduction of Android OS its Features & Applications

Android OS is based on the Linux kernel and is designed primarily for touchscreen devices such as smartphones and tablets.

Android is a dynamic operating system which is designed by Google to change the concept of smartphones. This is a Linux-based operating system that is mainly designed to operate touchscreen smartphones and tablets. Android OS has been introduced in the market almost 15 years ago and since then the software has evolved a lot. The journey of Android from black and white phones to today’s mini computer phones has been a roller coaster ride. The Android software which was founded in Palo Alto of California in 2003 is now part of every household.

Android OS Definition:

 

Android is a Linux based operating system it is designed primarily for touch screens mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. The operating system has developed a lot in the last 15 years starting from black and white phones to recent smartphones or mini computers.

  • Android is Linux based open source operating system , it can be developed by any one
  • Easy access to the android apps
  • You can replace the battery and mass storage, disk drive and UDB option
  • Its supports all Google services
  • The operating system is able to inform you of a new SMS and Emails or latest updates.
  • It supports Multitasking
  • Android phone can also function as a router to share internet
  • Its free to customize
  • Can install a modified ROM
  • Its supports 2D and 3D graphics

It is a very powerful operating system that is supported by a large number of applications. The hardware supported by Android is structured around the ARM architecture platform. Being open-source software Android can be used by anyone for free of cost. On the Android App Store, multiple utility apps are available which can help you out in performing numerous functions. This software is very cheap and due to Android software, today smartphones are becoming accessible to everyone.

Well, Android is completely developed over the java programming language. Moreover, the other packages that are API and JSE won’t support them. The very first version of the Android development kit 1.0 was introduced in 2008 and the latest addition to the Android family is pie.

Why was Android created?

Android was not created by Google. It was founded in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears and Chris White as Android  Inc. Android was initially conceptualized for Digital Cameras. However, because the Digital Camera market was smaller compared to Cellphones, the company decided to switch.

What is the latest Android operating system?

Android 13 is the latest Android version which has created an ecosystem for the new gesture navigation system. Numerous other Android versions are waiting so the future of the Android is very interesting. Here Top 5 Android Features you must know.

What devices use Android operating system?

An Android device may be a smartphone, tablet PC, e-book reader or any type of mobile device that requires an OSAndroid is developed by the Open Handset Alliance, which is led by Google. Some of the well-known Android device manufacturers include Acer, HTC, Samsung, LG, Sony Ericsson and Motorola.

Difference between Android OS and Android system?

The Android OS is essentially the inner/lower level android kernel.It works through “processes” built into android . Android system, on the other hand is the part of the outer/higher-level OS that essentially interacts with apps, sensors etc. The system essentially manages and communicates with all apps and their associated permissions via “Packages”.

Can Android be hacked?

Yes, both Android phones and iPhones can be hacked and it’s happening with alarming frequency. A few years ago, a text message security flaw called “Stagefright” was found in Android phones that put 95% of users at risk

The Architectural Design of Android

 

If we talk about the architectural structure of the Android software, then we can say that it is well building software. It has a stack of software components which are further divided into five sections and four layers – Linux kernel, libraries, and Android runtime. All these components are explained ahead –

Linux Kernel

Android uses the highly technical Linux kernel to support its wide range of hardware drivers. You can say that kernel is the heart of the operating system which handles input and output requests. The basic functions of the kernel are to process features like process management, memory management, and devices like cameras, displays, etc., In short, the kernel handles everything in the android. Linux is a very good networking software and it doesn’t require a necessary interface for the peripheral hardware. The kernel won’t directly interact with the user here, but it interacts with the shell and other programs with hardware devices on the system.

Libraries

On the top Linux kernel, you will find a set of libraries on Android which includes source web browsers such as WebKit, and library libc. The libraries are used to play and record audio and videos. SQLite is a database that is useful for the storage and sharing of application data. The SSL libraries are responsible for internet security etc.

Android Runtime

The Android runtime is another important part of the Android design which offers the component named Dalvik Virtual Machine which is a sort of java virtual machine. This virtual machine is specifically designed for Android OS. It is a process machine in the Android operating system. This software enables other applications to run over android devices. The Dalvik VM uses the Linux core features such as memory management and multithreading easy to use in the java language. It gives power to every Android application to run its process.

Features of Android

The Android applications can be located on the top layer and you can easily write applications on this layer. The applications such as books, browsers, services, etc., can be created on Android. Every application performs a different role in the overall applications. The features performed by applications are

  • Storage
  • Headset layout
  • Messaging
  • Language support
  • Touch
  • Visual calling
  • Screen capture
  • Media support
  • Optimizing graphics

What is Android Emulator?

Android Emulator

It is a new application of the android operating system family. The emulator is a new system that is used to develop and test Android applications without the support of any physical devices. It got all the hardware and software features such as mobile devices but it doesn’t support phone calls. It also offers multiple navigations and control keys and helps in displaying your application. It is designed to utilize the Android virtual device configuration. Once you have your application running over it, you can use the service of the android platform to assist other apps, access the network and play video, audio and much more.

Android Versions history

Here is the list of Android versions that have been released by January 2023. A little introduction of the most popular Android versions are – Android 13 Tiramisu is the latest version.

 

  • Android 1.0  G1 Introduced 2008: Debuted on the HTC Dream (aka T-Mobile G1) and served up apps through the Android Market with 35 apps at launch.
  • Android version 1.5 Cupcake Introduced 2009: Cupcake is released in early 2009. It was the first Android version that was named. The cupcake bought the framework for the third-party app widgets which became the breakthrough of the Android software.
  • Android version 1.6 Donut Introduced 2009: Donut is packed with some of the important Android abilities such as the feature to operate on a variety of different sizes of screen sizes and resolutions.
  • Android versions 2.0 to 2.1Éclair Introduced 2009: Éclair is the first mainstream Android software that was part of the original Motorola Droid.
  • Android version 2.2 Froyo introduced in 2010: Froyo is developed to improve the performance of the operating system.
  • Android version 2.3 Gingerbread introduced 2011: Gingerbread gave the green identity to Android.
  • Android 3.0 to 3.2 Honeycomb introduced 2011: Honeycomb is used to launch the first Android tablet.
  • Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich introduced in 2011: With version 4.0 Android Ice Cream Sandwich added face recognition for unlocking phones, canned text responses to declined calls and live video effects in the camera.
  • Android 4.1 Jelly Bean was introduced in 2012: With “Project Butter” Android 4.1 Jelly Bean brings faster, smoother performance with expandable notifications.
  • Android 4.4 KitKat was introduced in 2013: Google partnered with food company to create KitKat OS, and added emojis to the Google Keyboard.
  • Android 5.0 Lollipop was introduced 2014: Android 5 Lollipop is the version of Google’s mobile operating system that replaces Android KitKat and introduces us to the world of Material Design.
  • Android 6.0 Marshmallow was introduced in 2015: This OS makes massive strides in polishing the dull sheen left behind by Android 5.0 (Lollipop), It also added built-in support for a fingerprint reader, USB Type-C and 4K mode for apps.
  • Android 7.0 Nougat was introduced in 2016: and codenamed Android N during development Android 6.0 “Nougat” is the seventh major version and 14th original version of the Android operating system. It let you adjust the skin tone of your emojis and tap through more Quick Setting options.
  • Android 8.0 Oreo was introduced in 2017: codenamed Android O during development Android 8.0 Oreo focuses primarily on speed and efficiency, also boasts battery life improvements, revamped notifications, and more
  • Android 9.0 Pie was introduced in 2018: This flavor of Android is jam-packed with all sorts of new features, including a brand-new gesture navigation system, upgraded UI elements, and a heap of under-the-hood tweaks that aim to make this a seriously great version of Android.
  • Android 10 (Quince Tart) was developed under the codename “Android Q“. The stable version of Android 10 was released on September 3, 2019. It introduces the beloved Dark Theme,and live captioning on videos that are being played for more accessibility. Also, add support for biometric authentication, WPA3 Wi-Fi security and more.
  • Android 11 (Red Velvet Cake) The Seventeen big release of Android and the 17th version of the mobile OS was released on 8 September 2020. the latest Android 11 comes with a screen recording feature that captures our phone’s current screen activity. Some other features include Quick access to smart devices, a new pop-up notifications style called Bubbles, Smart device controls, Dark theme scheduling and more.
  • Android 12 (Snow Cone) Google officially released Android 12 on October 2021 bring new Material Design brings a dramatically different look and feel to the entire Android experience. Android 12 introduces a new system settings screen that shows access history for the location, camera, and microphone data.
  • Android 13 (Tiramisu) Officially launched in August 2022.

Android OS is ruling the smartphone industry with its variety of different features and functions. So, it will be interesting to see the upcoming features of the android club.

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